This is a transition period from high school students to civic youth.
in England, a 12-year-old boy was almost an adult. At the end of the 19th century, the average life expectancy in Russia was only 48 years. Thus, a person quickly passed from childhood to adulthood.
Children have always been involved in the labor process, ie society consisted of only two generations between which there were no age gaps. Thanks to the improvement of social and material conditions, people’s life expectancy has increased. Industry developed, all spheres of life, production and human activity became more complicated. it was work that required great physical and mental maturity, special professional knowledge and skills.
Thus, it became necessary to study in schools and special educational institutions, this process began to take a long time. Thus, between childhood and adulthood, a rather large age gap, called youth age, arose and began to increase.
In medicine, youth is considered as a period of personality development, during which the adolescent reaches the traits of an adult. The concept of “youth” in medicine has no social meaning, because the doctor needs to determine whether the patient meets the established medical standards and what are the deviations from them. This is a period of 10 to 20 years, which begins with the appearance of secondary sexual characteristics and ends with bone growth.
Biology considers it as a stage of puberty, with the onset of which a person can have sexual intercourse and participate in biological reproduction.
Psychology qualifies youth as a certain period of an individual’s life. All people in their development go through certain stages, which follow one another in a regular sequence. Stages in psychology are called stages of development (newborn, infant, early childhood, first childhood, second childhood, adolescence, adolescence, adulthood, old, senile, long-lived). Different authors have their own approaches to setting age limits.
Legal science strives for accuracy in determining the boundary between full and incomplete degree of human responsibility before the law. In the criminal code of each country there are boundaries between minors (persons under 14 years of age), minors (from 14 to 18 years of age) and adults (persons who have reached 18 years of age).
Sociology views youth as part of society. And we will consider how this science treats the age requirement of young people. Thus, the United Nations is most often appealed to as a supranational and supranational structure. For the first time in 1968, a report was presented at the 15th session of the General Conference of UNESCO, which reflected the views on youth and their problems. The age range of 15 – 24 years in the late 60’s was quite justified. After all, the main most aggressive part of the spontaneous riots of the youth of that time were mainly pupils and students.
However, even then there were heated discussions about the lower and upper age limits. This is due to the fact that the wider the gap between the lower and upper limits, the more citizens fall under the category of “youth” the more money countries have to allocate from their budgets for loans, benefits, social benefits, ie the more expensive youth for the country. Thus, the insufficient amount of money forces the scientific problem to be solved voluntarily, politically: there are as many young people in the state as the state has the money to make youth policy real.
There have long been discussions that the concept of “youth” should be significantly expanded, in particular from 13-14 years (lower limit) to 30-35 years upper. As for the lower limit, it is most often associated with the onset of puberty and the beginning of vocational training. Material poverty in many countries today drives thousands of 12-14 year olds to go to work, thus marking an early transition to the youth category (according to the International Labor Organization – ILO, in developing countries 52 million children under the age of 15 are already working).
The question of defining the upper limit of the concept of “youth” is quite difficult. It is believed that the end of youth is the moment when a young person fully enters the position of an adult, namely:
has economic independence; personal independence, ie the ability to make decisions that affect themselves in all spheres of existence, without the care of others; creating a personal family, taking responsibility for its existence.
Each of these conditions is necessary, but taken together they are sufficient to establish that a person is no longer considered young. Practice shows that some conditions are achieved separately at a fairly early age. For example, young people start their own families at the age of 20-22. However, economic and personal independence are gained much later. In many countries, joining a family union and giving birth to a child is quite problematic if at least one spouse is not guaranteed a job. Even a certified person aged 30-35, who depends on his parents as a result of unemployment, cannot be considered an adult in all countries because he is, in fact, a dependent.
Today, the establishment of a stable position in society shows that the age of 23 to 28 years is a period of stabilization of the place of residence of all young people, but later 3-5 years the process of adaptation to the new environment continues. That is, individuals receive a stable status at the age of 28-30. Around this time of life, young men and women acquire the appropriate family status. The period of family socialization ends by the age of 27-29. Thus, we can conclude that for all categories of acquisition of stable social status can be determined between 29-30 years.
Ukrainian law (Law of Ukraine “On Promotion of Social Formation and Development of Youth in Ukraine” of February 5, 1993) states that “youth, young citizens of Ukraine aged 14 to 28” (although in reality from 13 to 30 years, and we have established the reason for such a prolongation).
Let’s focus on the classification of this category of population as “youth”. Given the fact that in the scientific world there is no clear and uniform classification, we will take as a basis the latest views in juvenile science (complex science of youth), in particular the classification of VV Pavlovsky. This researcher divides “youth” into 4 subgroups.
This division allows us to record qualitatively specific large subgroups of youth, the stages of formation and development in its evolution from older adolescence to social maturity.
Age subgroup from 13-14 to 16-17 years – senior school period. This is a transition period from high school students to civic youth. The social status of youth is very dynamic. Boys and girls at this age, as a rule, graduate from high school, vocational schools, study or graduate from secondary special educational institutions and enter universities. Then ends their primary economic, political, ethnocultural socialization. Working youth has a special economic and legal status (reduced working day, which is paid as full, the ban on night shifts, leave in one calendar month).
The main task of young people of this period is the choice of profession, educational institution, organization, ie the choice of a stable and promising job. This period is also characterized by the transition from full maintenance to a more independent economic situation. A psychosocial moratorium is also a typical feature. Erickson notes in this regard that boys and girls have significantly expanded the range of roles, but they often change them, trying on. In this regard, the researcher considers the formation of a new self-awareness, a new sense of time, psychosexual interests. In general, the adolescent lifestyle is replaced by a youthful and girlish lifestyle, in which new essential activities are formed and, above all, independent production work, study in various educational institutions, as well as the beginning of personal family life by some young people ;
Age subgroup from 16-17 to 20-21 years period of civic formation (youth). This period can be defined as the beginning of self-employment of one part of young people, continuing education in universities and colleges by the second part, service in the army by the third. People of this age are recognized by the state as adults in public. Production labor becomes the leading branch of activity. The education that some young people receive is usually not general but special. Young people in these years gain some financial independence from their parents. Youth-girl friendship and also love reach their full development.
During this time, many people start their own families. The main contradiction of a positive nature – the rupture of the “umbilical cord” with the parental family, peers, school, with the way of life at a previous age. Young people achieve secondary positive socialization. The main contradiction of a negative nature – when breaking ties, some young people are involved in negative socialization, deviant behavior, adoption of an appropriate lifestyle. Leading types of activity – social formation, the dominant of which is the protection of nature, inclusion in active socio-political activities, starting a family, birth and upbringing of their own children;
Age subgroup from 20-21 years to 25-26 years – the first young civil age (first young adult age). It is believed that this is a period of improvement of labor activity by one part of the youth, graduation from universities of the second part, graduation from the army, as well as the creation of personal families by the vast majority. The main criteria here is the re-economization of the vast majority of young people, their inclusion in production activities at the same level as adults, with young people far exceeding the older ones, in particular in the possession of technical means. As well as secondary politicization through equalization with adults in all matters. Some young people who get married get divorced, some start a second time, but most raise animal farm summary characters children in their own families.
The main contradiction of a positive nature is the gradual liberation from the social status of early youth, civic formation, from the status and role of “very young” and the transition in the main spheres of activity to the civil status of socially useful adult members of society. The main contradiction of a negative nature is the exit from the state of civic formation of some young people of this age and their transition to a group of young people who cause more or less harm to nature and society due to conflicts, dramas, tragedies with society, labor, educational groups. , family.